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Вышел в свет новый номер журнала Psychopathology & Addiction Medicine


Psychopathology and Addiction Medicine 1.2 November 2016


RESEARCH
 
Dynamics of clinical-psychopathological and psychosocial characteristics of HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients suffering from opiate dependence: Russian-Belarussian investigation
Tatiana Klimenko et al.
The article provides the results of the clinical-psychological study of opiate dependence dynamics in HIV-positive patients (HPP) and HIV-negative patients (HNP) with opiate dependence before and after the treatment course at the stage of remission formation and stabilization.
The objective of the study was to explore the clinical-psychological and social characteristics of HPP before and after the treatment based on multi-dimensional assessment of opioid dependence dynamics in order to develop therapeutic measures for relapse prevention and achievement of the long-term remission.
Material and methods. Totally 820 patients were examined. The level of patients social functioning, quality of life, craving for narcotic substances and severity of psychopathological symptoms were studied by means of the Scale of the social functioning, SF-36, SCL-90-R and the Scale of the craving for drugs. The structure of psychopathological symptomatology and pathological craving are presented as well as the particularities of the social functioning and life quality of patients with opiate addiction. The changes of the indicated parameters are described before and after the treatment, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the beginning of the observation period. 
The results show that HPP have more severely impaired parameters compared to HNP. It was found that the treatment itself allows to diminish the problems associated with drug use and HIV infection. Nevertheless, the short-term treatment course can only provide the clinical improvement but not stabilization of psychosomatic state of HIV-positive patients with opiate dependence.
Conclusion. The results of the study indicates the need for development of specific tactics of HPP management to suit their needs, including the long-term complex treatment and rehabilitation programs.

Стр. 2—11

 
Borderline Personality Disorder. Psychodynamic Mechanisms of Long-Term Psychoanalytic Therapy
Ceasar Korolenko, Natalya Dmitrieva, Tatyana Shpiks
Abstract: 13 clients, 10 women and 3 men, aged 20-43, with borderline personality disorder (BPD) were observed and analyzed in the process of long-term (more than 30 sessions) psychodynamic psychotherapy. BPD was diagnosed according to DSM 5 (2013). Data of their anamnesis were obtained from the clients and their relatives. Psychological and psychiatric interviewing wee provided. Zanarini, MMPI and Millon tests were used..It was found that the typical for the clients symptom of high sensitivity in object relations have played a significant role in the therapeutic process. All clients manifested a tendency for sudden changes of their mental state, particularly in the mood, to developing of the regress to an infantile level of mentality with an appearance of dissociation identity disorders. Clients have projected on the therapist their negative feelings, in spite of the good relationships in the past. The effectiveness of the therapy was directly connected with the therapist’s ability of retaining consistent positive cohesive contact with the client and with creative use of countertransference reactions on the rapid changes of mental state of the clients.

Стр. 12—16

 
Features of using of empatho-technique for patients with phantom pain
Vera Ishinova
Method of psycho-physiological self-regulation (Empatho-technique), which was used for the elimination of phantom pain, was presented in this work. We investigated the intensity of pain, characteristics of its color reflection and emotional condition in patients with phantom pain and psychogenic pain at the beginning and at the end of the course of Empatho-technique. At the beginning of the course of psycho-physiological self-regulation the strong pain was reflected in the colors of the long-wave part of the spectrum and was accompanied by the high level of psychopathological symptoms. At the end of the course in all patients, who had an amputation of the lower limbs, we discovered the absence of the phantom pain and an improvement of the emotional state. The results of the investigation confirmed the efficacy of the Еmpatho-technique for patients with phantom pain.

Стр. 17—25

 
The coping behavior models and their influence on the development of burnout syndrome in health workers
Sergei Igumnov
The article studies the burnout syndrome (BS) and coping behavior models in health workers (doctors and nurses). The new scientific aspect of this article in comparison with previous researches is the study of the influence of socio-psychological adaptation and coping behavior strategies (coping) on the manifestations of burnout syndrome. The goal of this article is study the influence of coping behavior models on the manifestation of burnout syndrome in health workers.

Стр. 26—36

 

REPORT
 
Online sexual activity and virtual sex: present and future of cybersexual addiction
Nickolay Uzlov
The article gives a review of publications relating to the scope of pornography, cyberprostitution and cybersex in the Internet, the demand for such services; provides classification and diagnostic criteria of online sexual activity and addiction on virtual sex; discusses the sexual practices with the use of technology teledildonics and sex with robots; touches upon ethical, moral, legal and medical aspects of the problem, given futurological forecast for cybersexual addiction.

Стр. 37—46

 
In the world of Psychology and Psychopathology the rage is viewed as an affective personality disorder
Theodor Itten
When the emotional tension within becomes too high, and the affected person has no means of dealing appropriately with his or her intense feelings, he or she erupts into a rage. In the world of Psychology and Psychopathology rage is viewed as an affective personality disorder, as one of the altogether eight criteria of the borderline personality disorder, and as a sign of a mentally unstable choleric character type. Where does rage originate? How does it manifest itself? What can we undertake to rid ourselves of it? Many individuals experience rage as a personal, often inherited emotion. The destructive force of this rage that suddenly bursts into one’s daily routine is well known and yet often treated as taboo. Many children of parents subject to outbursts of rage, many partners of men and women inclined to outbursts of rage, suffer from the psychological and physical injury caused by these uncontrollable bursts of emotion. We are witnesses of outbursts of rage in the family setting, in relationships, in traffic situations, daily at work, in schools and in institutions. Which function does rage have in the framework of our lives, such as in the family, in school, in the working environment and in leisure time? How do the perpetrator and the victim relate to each other?

Стр. 47—54

 
Etiology and pathogenesis of mental disorders in epilepsy: localization of epileptic process
Boris Kazakovtsev
According to the data of studies of the author, the concept of localization of epileptic process is ambiguous. Most frequently it has a relation at the beginning of the disease. The prolonged retention of primary epileptic focus can be evidence of the stabilization of pathologic process. At the same time with the presence of therapeutic resistance localization of process can be the criterion of making a decision about surgical intervention. The concept of functional system, from the point of view of the author, reflects ideas about the formation of the psychopathological syndromes of one or other register or another with the epileptic disease: affective disorders, delusional disorders, catatonic disorders, predominantly connected with the interest such functional systems of brain as limbic (mesolimbic) system, temporal lobe, frontal lobe. The prolonged retention of the psychopathological disorders of any one of the enumerated registers is evidence of the limitedness of the motion of the process of predominantly one of the enumerated functional systems. The concept of interrelation or series connection into the process of the interested functional systems is useful for explaining the progressive course of an epileptic disease. In the comparison with the data of the studies of the author literature data, which relate to studies of etiology and pathogenesis of the epileptic disease, which takes place with the mental disorders, are analyzed. Based on the example to epileptic disease special attention is given to the comparison of the results of clinico- neuromorphological studies. The substantiation of the priority of clinical approach to the study of the pathogenesis of mental disorders is conducted. In this communication in the enumerated aspects, questions of localization of epileptic process are analyzed.

Стр. 55—61

 

ESSAY
 
The analysis of the narratives in the clients with alcohol addiction as the key for the understanding of their unconscious experiences
Caesar Korolenko
Narratives in the 10 clients with alcohol addiction were analyzed. The clients have declared that they practically did not see the night dreams. In the process of psychotherapy they have manifested also a resistance for the proposition to compose some freely chosen narratives. In the structure of the clients’ narratives was revealed both the manifest and the latent part. The content of the latent part was linked directly with the impact of the unconscious trigger (triggers). The contents of triggers were decoded because it was necessary for the understanding of the masked meaning of the narratives. The process of the decoding of the triggers involved the use of the guided associations that provoked the appearance of new additional narratives These additional narratives were directly linked with clients’ deep unconsciousness ; they represented the encoded hidden meanings of the unconscious triggers and reflected the influence of the processes that occurred in the deep unconscious wisdom system of the clients. It was shown that an activation of the capability of the clients with alcohol addiction to produce the narratives can be used both for the psychological assessment and analysis and utilized as the one of the tools of an effective psychodynamic psychotherapy.

Стр. 62—66

 

FOR PRACTITIONERS
 
Application of the non-invasive adaptive neuro-electrostimulation device for treatment of cognitive impairment in the model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Konstantin Retyunsky
The results of a comparative study of efficiency of a method of non-invasive adaptive neuro-electrostimulation and the standard method of treatment to restore cognitive deficits in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are presented in this paper. A brief description of the neuro-electrostimulation device - Sympathocor-01 and method of the dynamic corrections of the activity sympathetic nervous system (DCASNS) are proposed in this paper. The study involved 72 children with ADHD separated into two groups according to the type of treatment: the gold standard of treatment of ADHD in Russia and DCASNS method. As a result of the neuro -electrostimulation procedures in 12 months, there was significant improvement in attention, working memory, executive functions and behavior control in children with ADHD. Patient monitoring was performed using psychometric (ADHD-RS-IV), psychophysiological (TOVA) and electrophysiological (EEG) research methods. Results of a study allowed to formulate basic hypotheses about the clinical effects of DCASNS method. If ADHD is considered as a model of cognitive deficits the results of study can be used to treat cognitive impairments at various diseases in the elderly. Research using neuroimaging techniques is required to confirm the assumptions.

Стр. 67—72
 



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